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Hypermedia Online Publishing: the Transformation of the Scholarly Journal


1 Overview

1.1 Introduction 13

1.2 Definitions and scope 13

1.3 Aims of the study 14

1.4 Research questions 14

1.4.1 Artefacts 14

1.4.2 Stakeholders 14

1.5 Research design 15

1.5.1 Design questions 15

1.5.2 Research type 15

1.5.3 Data collection 16

1.6 Research implementation 17

1.6.1 Scholars 18

1.6.2 Libraries 18

1.7 Structure of the thesis 19

1.7.1 Theoretical setting 19

1.7.2 Historical perspective 19

1.7.3 Surveys and case studies 19

1.8 Related work 20

1.8.1 E-journals and tenure and reward structures 20

1.8.2 Citation studies 21

1.8.3 General attitudinal studies 22

1.8.4 Single e-journal readership survey 22

1.8.5 Survey of e-journals 23

1.8.6 Digital library studies 23

1.9 Conclusion 25

1.10 Previous Publications 25

1.10.1 Refereed 26

1.10.2 Non-refereed 26

2 Theoretical Perspectives

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Constructuralist ecology of communication 27

2.2.1 Initial assumptions 28

2.2.2 Concepts 29

2.2.3 Axioms and Theorems 30

2.2.4 An ecology of communicative transactions 31

2.2.5 Areas of application 32

2.2.6 Discussion 34

2.3 Punctuated equilibrium 34

2.3.1 Natural selection 34

2.3.2 Evolutionary change 35

2.3.3 Punctuated equilibrium and speciation 35

2.3.4 Other applications of punctuated equilibrium 36

2.4 A genre-based framework for new media 36

2.4.1 Definitions 36

2.4.2 Application questions 38

2.4.3 Discussion 39

2.5 Alternative theoretical perspectives 39

2.5.1 Modelled scholarly communication 39

2.5.2 Postmodern hypermedia 40

2.5.3 Open natural systems in digital libraries 40

2.5.4 Communication in science 40

2.5.5 Paradigm shifts in science 41

2.5.6 Social construction of technology 42

2.6 Conclusion 42

3 Print Publishing of Scholarly Journals

3.1 Introduction 44

3.2 Development of print journals 44

3.2.1 Early developments in communication 44

3.2.2 Rise of the scholarly journal 46

3.2.3 Current status 47

3.2.4 Communication and scholarship 47

3.3 Stakeholders in the scholarly journal ecology 48

3.3.1 Scholars 48

3.3.2 Scholarly societies 48

3.3.3 Publishers 48

3.3.4 Subscription agents 49

3.3.5 Libraries 49

3.4 Characteristics of print documents 49

3.4.1 Strengths 50

3.4.2 Deficiencies 50

3.5 Conclusion 51

4 Technology Developments

4.1 Introduction 52

4.2 Desktop Hardware 52

4.2.1 Processors 53

4.2.2 Multimedia facilities 53

4.2.3 Print output 53

4.2.4 Increasing ubiquity 54

4.3 Networks 54

4.3.1 Network infrastructure 54

4.3.2 The Internet 55

4.3.3 Trends in access 59

4.4 Hypertext and Hypermedia 59

4.4.1 Hypertext 59

4.4.2 Hypermedia 60

4.5 Software 60

4.5.1 Graphical User Interfaces 61

4.5.2 Multimedia 61

4.5.3 Page oriented solutions 63

4.5.4 Document oriented solutions 65

4.5.5 The Web 67

4.5.6 Computer-mediated communication 70

4.6 Characteristics of electronic documents 72

4.6.1 Strengths 72

4.6.2 Weaknesses 73

4.6.3 Archival issues 74

4.7 Conclusion 75

5 Potentials and Pressures for Transformation

5.1 Introduction 76

5.2 Transformation of publishing functions 76

5.2.1 Authoring 77

5.2.2 Peer review 77

5.2.3 Production 78

5.2.4 Notification 79

5.2.5 Distribution and access 79

5.2.6 Navigation 80

5.2.7 Archiving 82

5.3 Transformation of stakeholder roles 82

5.3.1 Scholars 83

5.3.2 Scholarly Societies 83

5.3.3 Publishers 83

5.3.4 Subscription agents 83

5.3.5 Libraries 83

5.4 Pressures for transformation 83

5.4.1 Journal economics 84

5.4.2 Problems with refereeing 84

5.4.3 Delays to publication 85

5.4.4 Limited interaction 86

5.4.5 Loss of ownership of knowledge 86

5.4.6 Need for associated intermediary processes 86

5.5 Conclusion 87

6 Developing Responses

6.1 Introduction 88

6.2 Responses 88

6.2.1 Early stirrings 88

6.2.2 Electronic text 89

6.2.3 Electronic paper 89

6.2.4 Hypertext articles 90

6.2.5 Multimedia enhancements 90

6.2.6 Embedded simulations 91

6.2.7 Increased interaction 91

6.2.8 New models for peer review 91

6.2.9 New economic models 92

6.2.10 Specialisation 94

6.2.11 Preserving brand identity 94

6.3 Leading-edge examples 95

6.3.1 Journal of Biological Chemistry 95

6.3.2 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 97

6.3.3 Journal of Interactive Media in Education 99

6.4 Conclusion 102

7 Surveys

7.1 Introduction 103

7.2 Survey process 103

7.2.1 Design 103

7.2.2 Target populations 104

7.2.3 Survey administration 105

7.2.4 Survey response 106

7.2.5 Error minimisation 108

7.2.6 Data encoding 109

7.2.7 Descriptive analysis 109

7.2.8 Statistical analysis 111

7.3 Survey Results 113

7.3.1 Basic demographics 113

7.3.2 Access to technology 117

7.3.3 Use of electronic publishing technologies 120

7.3.4 Advantages of electronic scholarly publishing 128

7.3.5 Disadvantages of electronic scholarly publishing 136

7.4 Conclusion 144

8 Library Case Studies

8.1 Introduction 145

8.2 Case study research 145

8.2.1 Overview 145

8.2.2 Case study issues 145

8.2.3 Designing the case study 146

8.2.4 Data collection 147

8.2.5 Data analysis 148

8.3 Highwire Press 149

8.3.1 Overview 149

8.3.2 Origins and organisation 149

8.3.3 Financial sustainability 149

8.3.4 Products 150

8.3.5 Lessons learned 150

8.3.6 Future prospects 151

8.4 Internet Library of Early Journals (ILEJ) 151

8.4.1 Overview 151

8.4.2 Origins and organisation 151

8.4.3 Financial sustainability 152

8.4.4 Products 152

8.4.5 Lessons learned 153

8.4.6 Future prospects 153

8.5 Project Educate 154

8.5.1 Overview 154

8.5.2 Origins and organisation 154

8.5.3 Financial sustainability 155

8.5.4 Products 155

8.5.5 Lessons learned 156

8.5.6 Future prospects 156

8.6 Project Muse 156

8.6.1 Overview 156

8.6.2 Origins and organisation 157

8.6.3 Financial sustainability 157

8.6.4 Products 157

8.6.5 Lessons learned 158

8.6.6 Future prospects 158

8.7 Scholarly Communications Project 159

8.7.1 Overview 159

8.7.2 Origins and organisation 159

8.7.3 Financial sustainability 159

8.7.4 Products 159

8.7.5 Lessons learned 160

8.7.6 Future prospects 160

8.8 Conclusion 160

9 Interpretation of findings

9.1 Introduction 161

9.2 Transformations in the form of journals 161

9.2.1 Insights from theoretical perspectives 161

9.2.2 Insights from research literature 167

9.2.3 Insights from thesis surveys 170

9.2.4 Insights from case studies 171

9.2.5 Other insights 172

9.3 Transformations in the function of journals 172

9.3.1 Insights from theoretical perspectives 173

9.3.2 Insights from research literature 174

9.3.3 Insights from thesis surveys 175

9.4 Transformations in stakeholder roles 176

9.4.1 Insights from theoretical perspectives 176

9.4.2 Insights from research literature 177

9.4.3 Insights from case studies 178

9.5 Transformations in stakeholder practices 178

9.5.1 Insights from theoretical perspectives 179

9.5.2 Insights from research literature 179

9.5.3 Insights from thesis surveys 180

9.5.4 Insights from case studies 181

9.6 Conclusion 182

10 Conclusions

10.1 Introduction 183

10.2 Transformations in the form of journals 183

10.2.1 Future of the journal as artefact 183

10.2.2 A new technology stasis? 184

10.2.3 Archiving the e-journal 184

10.3 Transformations in the function of journals 184

10.3.1 Evolution or revolution? 184

10.4 Transformations in stakeholder roles 185

10.4.1 Interlocking systems and interdependencies 185

10.5 Transformations in stakeholder practices 185

10.5.1 Technology as enhancer 185

10.5.2 Who does the archiving? 185

10.6 Final thoughts 186

11 Survey Instruments

11.1 Email survey instrument 187

11.2 Print survey instrument 189

11.3 Library Case-Study Questions 191

12 References

12.1 Reference List 194

13 Previous Publications

13.1 Refereed 205

13.2 Non-refereed 205

14 Addendum

14.1 Errata 206

14.2 Responses to research findings comments 206

14.2.1 Survey phase 206

14.2.2 Specific comments 207

14.3 Responses to suggestions 208

14.3.1 Purpose and significance 208

14.3.2 Scope 208

14.3.3 Methodology 208

14.3.4 E-Journal forms 209

14.3.5 E-Journal functions 209

14.3.6 Publishers as stakeholders 209

14.3.7 Roles of providing access and archives 209

14.3.8 Role in the scholarly communication process 209

14.3.9 Sustainability 210

14.3.10 Copyright responsibilities 210

14.3.11 Implications 210


Last modified: Monday, 18-Sep-2017 03:28:06 AEST

© Andrew Treloar, 2001. * http://andrew.treloar.net/ * andrew.treloar@its.monash.edu.au